ISSN 2586-9566 (Print) ISSN 2985-0789 (Online)

Species Diversity of Birds in Natural Forest Edge along Agriculture Area at Song Kwae Non-Hunting Area, Phitsanulok Province

Suppalert Punpoompo1, Nattapong Hongtong2, Wanna Mangkita1, Pattraporn Pukklay3 and Lamthai Asanok4*
1Department of Forest Management, Maejo University – Phrae Campus, Phare province, 54140
2Song Kwae Non-Hunting Area, Phitsanulok Province, 651610
3Department of Applied Biology, Maejo University – Phrae Campus, Phrae province, 54140
4Department of Agroforestry, Maejo University – Phrae Campus, Phrae province, 54140
*Corresponding author: Email:

Background and Objectives: Bird diversity can indicate the complexity of ecosystems, including, serve as a habitat management particular under disturbed areas by human activities. This study aimed to assess bird diversity and determined plant community factors across the forest edge of the Song Kwae Non-Hunting area. 

Methodology: Four line transects, each length of 1,500 m, was established and each line laid out from the natural forest through forest edge and agricultural area which distanced of 500 m for each area.  Point count method was performed for bird observation with interval of 150 meter between each point (total of 11 points for each line transect). Monthly data observation was done from December 2021 to November 2022 (total of 12 months). In addition, plant community data was collected at each point with 10 m × 10 m plot size. Then, bird diversity was analyzed, including, the relationship between birds and plant community was also analyzed.  

Main Results: One hundred and twenty species of birds in 52 genera, and 15 families were recorded. Bird diversity based on Shannon-Weiner index, Simpson index, and evenness index were 3.083±0.04, 0.087±0.13 and 0.867±0.007, respectively. Number of species on conservation status of Thai Protected species, CITES Appendices, IUCN Red Data List and Thai Red List (ONEP) were 117, 15, 120, and 119 species, respectively. For relative abundance, we found that the medium abundant species were 9 species such as Megalaima lineata, Streptopelia chinensis while and also uncommon and rare species were 19 and 92 species, respectively. The cluster analysis divided birds into 3 sub-communities; 1) the agricultural area, found to be independent of the plant community (such as Prinia hodgsonii and Acridotheres grandis), 2) the forest edge area which related to the tree basal area and density such as Coracina polioptera and Sitta frontalis and 3) the natural forest area-which related with the crown cover size such as Cyornis banyumas and Zoothera citrina.

Conclusion: The forest edge creation had divided bird habitats, leading to distinct bird communities based on characteristics of plant community. This valuable information can use to conserve bird diversity based on habitat management and lead to long term sustainable utilization.

Keywords: Bird communities; wildlife management; protected area management; habitat

Download full text (Thai pdf): 41 clicks